Belief has persisted in special mental powers such as mind reading, clairvoyance (seeing that which is hidden), fortune telling, and psychokinesis (mind-over-matter). A term for these alleged powers was introduced in 1934 by Dr. J.B. Rhine at Duke University. He and his colleagues conducted experiments with test subjects that supposedly verified "extrasensory perception" (or ESP). However, skeptics pointed out numerous flaws in the test procedures, a problem that has plagued successive ESP research.
digitized 2014 by Amanda Shepp, MLS